My research paper is to explain why animals should be spayed and neutered. There

My research paper is to explain why animals should be spayed and neutered. There should be a title, a introductory paragraph(two is acceptable for explanatory information) and a concluding paragraph. The thesis statement should explicitly express my stance (Animals should be spayed and neutered). There should be at least 3 regular body paragraphs. There should be 1 paragraph that shows the opposite way of a animal should not be spayed and neutered and a concession of why they should be spayed & Nurtured. There should be proper citation for both paraphrases and direct quotes, should be in proper MLA physical format. Also contain a works cited page( that is numbered consecutively with the paper and arranged alphabetically). The sources I already have are: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6523704/
https://www.animalhumanesociety.org/resource/pros-and-cons-spaying-or-neutering-your-dog-or-cat-early-age
https://www.aspca.org/pet-care/general-pet-care/spayneuter-your-pet
I need 1 or 2 more sources on the topic.

The purpose of reading “House on Mango Street” for this class is to examine Cisn

The purpose of reading “House on Mango Street” for this class is to examine Cisneros’ fictional writing in preparation for you to write a fictional vignette (less then 500 words) about a social problem, such as the cycle of poverty, marginalized neighborhoods and stereotyped gender roles. She employs metaphor, symbol, and cultural allusions throughout her work.
Writing Instruction (500 words max)
1.) Pick a vignette and discuss how the child’s voice talks about an adult problem.
2.) Eyes of a Child Vignette: Attempt to write your own vignette in your child-self about a social problem that you now understand as an adult. Use Sandra Cisneros
American writer vignette as a model for yours.
Look up literary devices and/or use the PPT “Rhetorical Devices” to help you with employing devices into your vignette. Most commonly used literary devices used in rhetoric and argument – Metaphor, Metonymy, Simile, Symbol, and Allusion.

Please provide an answer that is 100% original and do not copy the answer to thi

Please provide an answer that is 100% original and do not copy the answer to this question from any other website since I am already well aware of this. I will be sure to check this.
Please be sure that the answer comes up with way less than 18% on Studypool’s internal plagiarism checker since anything above this is not acceptable according to Studypool’s standards. I will not accept answers that are above this standard.
No AI or Chatbot! I will be sure to check this.
Hi, I just need someone to respond to the following student discussion posts which I have provided below in 1-2 Paragraphs Each Times New Roman Size 12 Font Double-Spaced APA Format Excluding the Title and Reference Pages. Also, I have provided the original discussion prompt that the replies were referring to. I have provided an example of how to reply to a student to give you an idea of how to respond to a student discussion response.
In your responses to your classmates, build on their initial posts and explain which service model is most appealing to you and why.
For your response posts (2) you must:Reply to two different classmates outside of your own initial post thread. What to Submit. Your discussion posts must follow APA formatting guidelines. For formatting information click here to access the Shapiro Library’s APA Citation Guide.
Student Replies That Need to Be Responded to:
Gabrielle post 1
I think the biggest one to compare right now is the fact that all of them are there to assist individuals and people in the community. Consumers often must go through all three different models in some sort of sense. With the medical model, they are often diagnosed with some type of sickness or illness, and they are treated with medication. For example, a person must go through the medical model they are diagnosed with an illness, and they are given medication to start treating their illness such as schizophrenia disorder. Then they go through the step of public health model. Basically, a worker helps assess their situation the abuse, poverty and illness and helps them reintegrate into a healthier living. With the public health model, they also help educate people in the community about said mental disorders, for example by film speakers and school programs. Lastly there is the human service model. This is to help individuals and the environment and the services that they allow, for example workforce development. Human Services allows individuals to gain access to having help with reintegrating into the community and upholding a position work. They are introduced to other services in the environment that allow resources to assist them. I think the difference between the three services is that the medical model is chemical assistance and treatment for an individual with an illness it’s medication. Then for public health it helps people in individual settings reintegrate to the community and then of course the Human Services helps them more with resources and reassurance with other services available to them they all help us in a way, but they all help us individually in a different aspect.
Post 2 : Tony
7-1 Discussion: Models of Service
Adjust automatic marking as read setting
Medical Model:Woodside, M., & McClam, T. (n.d.)Focus: The medical model of service delivery is primarily concerned with diagnosing and treating individual illnesses or conditions.
Approach: It is often characterized by a hierarchical relationship between healthcare providers (such as physicians, nurses, and specialists) and patients, with a focus on addressing specific medical issues.
Goals: The primary goal is to alleviate symptoms, cure diseases, or manage chronic conditions through medical interventions such as medications, surgeries, and therapies.
Settings: Services are typically delivered in hospitals, clinics, private practices, or other healthcare facilities.
Examples: Doctor’s visits, hospitalizations, surgeries, and specialized medical treatments are examples of services provided within the medical model.
Public Health Model: Woodside, M., & McClam, T. (n.d.)Focus: The public health model emphasizes the prevention of diseases and promotion of overall health and well-being within populations.
Approach: It takes a holistic approach to health by addressing social, environmental, and behavioral factors that influence health outcomes.
Goals: The primary goals include preventing diseases, promoting healthy behaviors, and addressing health disparities through population-level interventions such as vaccination campaigns, health education programs, and policy initiatives.
Settings: Public health services are delivered through government agencies, community organizations, non-profit groups, and healthcare institutions.
Examples: Public health initiatives like immunization programs, disease surveillance, community health assessments, and health promotion campaigns are examples of services provided within the public health model.
Human Services Model:Woodside, M., & McClam, T. (n.d.)Focus: The human services model is focused on meeting the social, emotional, and practical needs of individuals and communities to improve overall well-being.
Approach: It emphasizes empowerment, self-sufficiency, and social justice, often working with vulnerable populations such as children, the elderly, individuals with disabilities, and those experiencing poverty or homelessness.
Goals: The primary goals include providing support, resources, and advocacy to help individuals and families overcome challenges and achieve their goals.
Settings: Human services are delivered through a variety of settings, including government agencies, non-profit organizations, community centers, schools, and social service agencies.
Examples: Counseling and therapy, case management, housing assistance, food aid, job training, childcare, and support for individuals with disabilities are examples of services provided within the human services model.
Comparison:
Focus: The medical model focuses on treating individual illnesses, the public health model emphasizes preventing diseases within populations, and the human services model addresses social and practical needs to improve overall well-being.
Approach: The medical model tends to be more hierarchical and focused on medical interventions, while the public health and human services models take a holistic and interdisciplinary approach to address social determinants of health.
Goals: While all models aim to improve health outcomes, their goals differ in terms of whether they prioritize individual treatment, population-level prevention, or social support and empowerment.
Settings: While there may be overlap in settings (such as healthcare facilities and community organizations), each model has its unique delivery systems and service providers.
In summary, the medical, public health, and human services models of service delivery differ in their focus, approach, goals, and settings, but they all play important roles in promoting health and well-being within individuals and communities.
Woodside, M., & McClam, T. (n.d.). An Introduction to Human Services. Cengage
Original Discussion Prompt:
In your textbook, you read about the medical, public health, and human services model of service delivery. In this discussion, compare and contrast the different models of delivery. Explain the differences between the three service delivery models.
To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric.For your initial post (1)you must:
Compose a post of one to two paragraphs.What to Submit: Your discussion posts must follow APA formatting guidelines. For formatting information click here to access the Shapiro Library’s APA Citation Guide.Discussion Rubric
CriteriaExemplary (100%)Proficient (85%)Needs Improvement (55%)Not Evident (0%)Value
ComprehensionDevelops an initial post addressing the prompt, and the post shows an organized, clear point of view or idea using rich and significant detail; supports ideas by referencing course materialsDevelops an initial post addressing the prompt, and the post maintains a point of view or idea using adequate organization and detail; supports ideas by referencing course materialsDevelops an initial post that somewhat relates to the prompt, and the post includes gaps in organization and detailDoes not develop an initial post40
TimelinessN/ASubmits initial post on time (100%)Submits initial post one day late (55%)Submits initial post two or more days late (0%)10
EngagementProvides relevant and meaningful response posts with clarifying explanation and detailProvides relevant response posts with some explanation and detailProvides somewhat relevant response posts with some explanation and detailProvides response posts that are generic with little explanation or detail30
Writing (Mechanics)Writes posts that are easily understood, clear, and concise using proper citation methods where applicable with no errors in citations and no major errors related to grammar, spelling, or syntaxWrites posts that are easily understood using proper citation methods where applicable, with few errors in citations and some minor errors related to grammar, spelling, or syntaxWrites posts that are understandable using proper citation methods where applicable, with a number of errors in citations and many errors related to grammar, spelling, or syntaxWrites posts that others are not able to understand and does not use proper citation methods where applicable; submission has errors related to grammar, spelling, or syntax throughout20
Total:100%
Example of How to Respond to a Student Discussion Post:
Hi Nita,
I like how you discuss both the teacher observing the student and the student observing their own art. You bring up excellent points about the teachers observing the children, because it does help the teacher to better communicate with the children and understand them better. As teachers, it is very important to nurture students, particularly if they are very young, I think, because it allows them to better understand the needs of the student, and how to work with them. Paying attention to what the student is drawing, and seeing how the student reacts to their own work can improve the teachers’ understanding.
Expressing feelings in this discussion board reply examples is a major component of growing up. The more a student is able to express those feelings, the more they can understand them. I liked reading about what you said on this topic, and I agree that the art is a very useful tool that students can learn to express their feelings effectively. If they do not express them, they are keeping them inside, and drawing can become a form of counseling for them. In my opinion, I think the drawing can be particularly useful for many students who are quiet. These students do not often express themselves verbally, and drawing can be a way for them to understand their feelings, and to release some pent up sadness of hostile feelings, for example. I think this form of therapy sticks with many people throughout life, and they continue to use drawing as a coping mechanism.
Thanks,
Steven
Requirements: 1-2 Paragraphs Each Student Response Times New Roman Size 12 Font Double-Spaced APA Format Excluding the Title and Reference Pages
Please be sure that the answer comes up with way less than 18% on Studypool’s internal plagiarism checker since anything above this is not acceptable according to Studypool’s standards. I will not accept answers that are above this standard.
No AI or Chatbot! I will be sure to check this.
Please be sure to carefully follow the instructions
No plagiarism & No Course Hero & No Chegg. The assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.
Please be sure to include at least one in-text citation in each paragraph(s).
Please be sure to use scholarly sources published within the last 5 years.

Week 5 – Assignmen Resource Analysis on Substance Use and Abuse [WLO: 2] [CLO: 2

Week 5 – Assignmen
Resource Analysis on Substance Use and Abuse
[WLO: 2] [CLO: 2]
Prior to beginning work on this assignment, read Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use Prevention Programs in U.S. Identify and analyze one resource that provides information regarding services for dealing with and treating substance use and abuse in youth or adolescence. Write a paper which discusses the availability of the services, the requirements for accessing those services, and the human service professionals involved in the service setting.
Proper APA Style format (7th ed.) is required (see the Writing Center’s Introduction to APLinks to an external site. for assistance). If you choose to expand beyond the resource located for this assignment and utilize supporting materials, then the use of two peer-reviewed, scholarly journal articles is also a requirement.
Watch the YouTube video Benchmark the service chosen against these standards.
In your paper,
Discuss the availability of the services, the requirements for accessing those services, and the human service professionals involved in the service setting.
Outline any detailed information the source provides about services and professionals involved in services.
Describe the type of information there is on the requirement for accessing services.
Explain any information provided about the number of people served and the demographics of people.
Conclude if the available service is adequate for treating the needs of this particular population to be served.Defend why or why not.
Determine what other professionals might need to be involved in the service setting to make the service more effective.
The Resource Analysis on Substance Use and Abuse paper
Must be four to six double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA Style as outlined in the Writing Center’s APA StyleLinks to an external site. resource.
Must include a separate title page with the following:Title of paper (bold and with a space between the title and the rest of the information)
Student’s name, followed by institution name (“University of Arizona Global Campus”)
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Date submitted
For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013Links to an external site..
Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic VoiceLinks to an external site. resource for additional guidance.
Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper.For assistance on writing Introductions & ConclusionsLinks to an external site. as well as Writing a Thesis StatementLinks to an external site., refer to the Writing Center resources.
Must use at least two scholarly sources in addition to the course text.The Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, and Other Credible SourcesLinks to an external site. table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.
To assist you in completing the research required for this assignment, view this Library Quick ‘n’ DirtyLinks to an external site. tutorial, which introduces the University of Arizona Global Campus Library and the research process, and provides some library search tips.
Must document any information used from sources in APA Style as outlined in the Writing Center’s APA: Citing Within Your PaperLinks to an external site. guide.
Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA Style as outlined in the Writing Center. See the APA: Formatting Your References ListLinks to an external site. resource in the Writing Center for specifications.
Carefully review the Grading RubricLinks to an external site. for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

Please provide an answer that is 100% original and do not copy the answer to thi

Please provide an answer that is 100% original and do not copy the answer to this question from any other website since I am already well aware of this. I will be sure to check this.
Please be sure that the answer comes up with way less than 18% on Studypool’s internal plagiarism checker since anything above this is not acceptable according to Studypool’s standards. I will not accept answers that are above this standard.
No AI or Chatbot! I will be sure to check this.
HSE 101 Final Project Guidelines and Rubric
Overview
Human services professionals work in a variety of settings such as hospitals, mental health centers, addiction treatment programs, child welfare, courts, probation, schools, and food banks. This course serves as your introduction to the field. In the final assignment, you will apply what you learned about the history of the human services field and about current trends, theory, ethics, the helping process, roles, and the variety of settings in which human services professionals are employed.
The project is supported by four formative milestones, which will be submitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final submissions. These milestones will be submitted in Modules Two, Four, Five, and Six. The final submission will be due in Module Seven.
This assessment addresses the following course outcomes:
Analyze the history of the field of human services for its relationship to current trends in the field
Describe theories, values, and ethics for guiding work as a human services professional
Differentiate between the various roles human services professionals employ facilitating the helping process
Research human services employment opportunities for informing career paths
Prompt
For the final assessment, you will select an agency in which you would like to be employed. You will research the types of services this agency offers by looking at its website, visiting the agency (if possible), emailing or interviewing someone who works at the agency. Once you have gathered the information for this project, you will explain why you selected this particular agency instead of others, write about how history and current trends have influenced this agency, what theories, values, and ethical standards you would apply if you worked at the agency, and how your personal values might be challenged, what your role in the helping process might be, and what qualifications you would need to apply for a job at that agency.
Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed
Human Services Profession
Choose a human services agency in which you would like to be employed.What is the agency you selected, and what was your rationale for choosing this particular agency? What other agencies did you consider, and why did you not select them? Why would you like to be employed at this agency?
Agency Description
Research the types of services this agency offers by looking at its website, visiting the agency (if possible), emailing or interviewing someone who works at the agency.
What are the main types of services offered?
Describe what main type of professionals work within this agency, and describe their roles.
History and Current TrendsGive a brief history of the development of the agency. Consider describing who established it, why it was originally established, and how it has evolved. Include the mission of the agency and any other pertinent information.
How is the history of the human services field similar to and different from the history of the agency?
Describe current trends that impact the work of the agency. How do these trends relate to the history of the human services field?
Theories, Values, and Ethics
Review the code of ethics for human service professionals and theories learned in this class.What is the importance of having a code of ethics? How would the code of ethics impact your provision of services in this agency?
Which standards in the Ethical Standards for Human Service Professionals will be more and which will be less challenging to implement, and why?
What theory might you apply while working with clients in your selected agency? Describe an example of how you might apply this theory in your work at this agency.
Role in the Helping Process
Based on your research, what roles might you utilize at this agency in each stage of the helping process?
Career Opportunities
Research the careers available in the specific agency, and discuss the qualifications.Choose an entry-level position you are interested in pursuing, and discuss the qualifications you would need to apply for the position.
Detail the qualifications you possess and which skills you are lacking to qualify for the position.
Summary of Learning
To conclude this paper, summarize what you have learned in this course that you can apply to your everyday life.
Milestones
Milestone One: Human Services Organization Identification
In Module Two, you will select one agency in which you would like to be employed and write a one-page overview describing the agency, your interest in it, and the different roles and positions the agency maintains. You will focus on this agency throughout the rest of the agency exploration assignment. This milestone is graded with the Milestone One Rubric.
Milestone Two: Human Services Timeline Discussion
In Module Four, you will reflect on the history of the human services field and the history of your chosen organization through a discussion. You will make a post that identifies the founding of your selected organization and highlights an important event or news story that has impacted the human services field. This milestone is graded with the Milestone Two Rubric.
Milestone Three: Helping Process Discussion
In Module Five, you will select one client-facing role that is used by human services professionals within the organization you selected for your final project and create a post that names the role, explains the different responsibilities of the profession, and provides examples of how this role relates to the steps of the larger helping process. This milestone is graded with the Milestone Three Rubric.
Milestone Four: Summary of Learning
In Module Six, you will describe, in a 1–2-paragraph written response, what you have learned in this course that you can apply to your everyday life. This milestone is graded with the Milestone Four Rubric.
Final Submission: Agency Exploration
In Module Seven, you will submit your final agency exploration. The final submission is graded with the Final Project Rubric (see following page).
What to Submit
Your agency exploration should be between 7 and 10 pages, double-spaced, use 12-point Times New Roman font, and be written in APA style.
Final Project Rubric
CriteriaExemplary (100%)Proficient (85%)Needs Improvement (55%)Not Evident (0%)Value
Human Services Profession: AgencyMeets “Proficient” criteria, and rationale is especially clear and well supportedSelects an agency and gives rationale for choosing that particular professionSelects an agency, but does not give rationale for choosing that particular profession, or rationale is weakDoes not select an agency7.6
Agency Description: ServicesMeets “Proficient” criteria, and description is especially clear and contextualizedDescribes the main types of services offeredDescribes the main types of services offered, but description lacks detail or accuracyDoes not describe the types of services offered7.6
Agency Description: ProfessionalsMeets “Proficient” criteria, and descriptions are especially clear and contextualizedDescribes the main types of professionals within the program or organization and their rolesDescribes the main types of practitioners within the program or organization and their roles, but description lacks detail or accuracyDoes not describe the main types of practitioners and their roles7.6
History and Current Trends: HistoryMeets “Proficient” criteria and utilizes sources to strengthen descriptionComprehensively describes the development of the organizationDescribes the development of the organization, but description lacks detail or is inaccurateDoes not describe the development of the organization7.6
History and Current Trends: AgencyMeets “Proficient” criteria and utilizes sources to strengthen descriptionDiscusses the relationship between the history of human services and the history of the agencyDiscusses the relationship between the history of human services and the history of the agency, but information lacks detail or accuracyDoes not discuss the relationship between the history of human services and the history of the agency7.6
History and Current Trends: TrendsMeets “Proficient” criteria and utilizes sources to strengthen descriptionDescribes current trends that impact work in the agency, relating these to the history of human servicesDescribes current trends that impact work in the agency, relating these to the history of human services, but lacks detail or accuracyDoes not describe current trends that impact work in the agency, relating these to the history of human services7.8
Theories, Values, and Ethics: ImportanceMeets “Proficient” criteria and provides concrete examples to substantiate claimsDescribes the importance of the code of ethics and how it impacts the provision of services in the agencyDescribes the importance of the code of ethics and how it impacts the provision of services in the agency, but description is lacking detail or accuracyDoes not describe the importance of the code of ethics and how it impacts the provision of services in the agency7.6
Theories, Values, and Ethics: ChallengingMeets “Proficient” criteria and provides concrete examples to substantiate claimsDetails which standards will be most and least challenging to implement, providing justificationDetails which standards will be most and least challenging to implement, providing justification, but justification lacks detail or accuracyDoes not detail which standards will be most and least challenging to implement, and does not provide justification7.6
Theories, Values, and Ethics: ApplyMeets “Proficient” criteria and is well qualified with concrete examplesDescribes a theory that applies when working in the agency and provides an exampleDescribes a theory that applies when working in the agency and provides an example, but lacks detail or accuracyDoes not describe a theory that applies when working in the agency and does not provide an example7.8
Role in the Helping ProcessMeets “Proficient” criteria and is well qualified with concrete examplesIdentifies roles in the agency for each stage of the helping process, providing justificationIdentifies roles in the agency for each stage of the helping process, providing justification, but lacks detail or accuracyDoes not identify roles in the agency for each stage of the helping process, and does not provide justification7.8
Career Opportunities: QualificationsMeets “Proficient” criteria, and description is exceptionally clearDiscusses qualifications of an entry-level position and compares to personal experienceDiscusses qualifications of an entry-level position and compares to personal experience, but lacks detail and accuracyDoes not discuss qualifications of an entry-level position and does not compare to personal experience7.6
Career Opportunities: SkillsMeets “Proficient” criteria and justifies assertionsDetails the skills and needs to qualify for the entry-level positionDetails the skills and needs to qualify for the entry-level position, but lacks detail and accuracyDoes not detail the skills and needs to qualify for the entry-level position7.8
Summary of LearningMeets “Proficient” criteria and is exceptionally clearSummarizes how coursework can be applied to real life and how it relates to career goalsSummarizes how coursework can be applied to real life and how it relates to career goals, but lacks detailDoes not summarize how coursework can be applied to real life and how it relates to career goals4
Articulation of ResponseSubmission is free of errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, and organization and is presented in a professional and easy-to-read formatSubmission has no major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organizationSubmission has major errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that negatively impact readability and articulation of main ideasSubmission has critical errors related to citations, grammar, spelling, syntax, or organization that prevent understanding of ideas4
Total:100%
Requirements: 7-10 Full Pages Times New Roman Size 12 Font Double-Spaced APA Format Excluding the Title and Reference Pages
Please provide an answer that is 100% original and do not copy the answer to this question from any other website since I am already well aware of this. I will be sure to check this.
Please be sure that the answer comes up with way less than 18% on Studypool’s internal plagiarism checker since anything above this is not acceptable according to Studypool’s standards. I will not accept answers that are above this standard.
No AI or Chatbot! I will be sure to check this.
Please be sure to include an introduction paragraph with a clear thesis statement in the last sentence of the introduction paragraph and a conclusion paragraph.
Please be sure to carefully follow the instructions.
No plagiarism & No Course Hero & No Chegg. The assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.
Please be sure to include at least one in-text citation in each body paragraph.
Please be sure to use credible or scholarly sources published within the last 5 years.

Faith Based Agencies [WLO: 2] [CLOs: 2, 3, 4] Prior to beginning work on this jo

Faith Based Agencies
[WLO: 2] [CLOs: 2, 3, 4]
Prior to beginning work on this journal, watch Faith Based Initiative /Social Service and Congregational Research Part Links to an external site. and Faith Based Initiative /Social Service Researc
Pick a particular case study discussed in Chapter 12 and explain why the faith-based intervention was successful. Determine what conditions would cause a human service professional to integrate faith-based interventions into the counseling strategy. It is wise to stay abreast of what services are available in your area; locate 5 faith-based agencies in your area or region and explainbriefly what they do and for which populations. Your Learning Activity should consist of approximately 350 to 500 words.
Case Example of a Client at a Christian Faith-Based Agency
Castle Christian Counseling Center (CCCC) is a not-for-profit, ecumenical counseling center contracted by the county to provide mandated counseling services, including anger management and alcohol counseling for individuals who have been charged with an alcohol offense. Julie was required to attend anger management as a part of her probation for a domestic battery charge. Julie’s initial psychosocial assessment recommended that she participate in both group and individual counseling. The group counseling consisted of a 26-week program focusing on anger management and personal accountability.
Julie’s individual counseling was designed to help her deal with the underlying reasons for intense anger and inappropriate behavior, such as verbal and physical abuse. Julie was 24 years old when she was charged with domestic battery against her husband of three years. When Julie began counseling she was both emotionally needy and defensive. Her counselor, Dana, suspected that beneath Julie’s defensiveness lay a tremendous amount of shame, so she chose not to confront Julie until much later in their counseling relationship.
During the first several months of counseling Julie expressed considerable anger and frustration with her husband, who she perceived as being quite passive. In response to his seeming inability to make decisions or take the lead in any aspect of their life, Julie expressed extreme disappointment and at times rage. It became clear to Dana that Julie’s husband was in many respects being set up for failure by Julie. For instance, Julie often expressed to her husband that she wished he would be more proactive in their social life, but if he did forge ahead and make plans without checking with her first, she would become irate that he chose an activity he should have known she would not like. Yet if he checked with her first before making plans, she would become angry that he did not have the confidence to make plans without her input, and she would accuse him of ruining the surprise for her.
The incident that resulted in the charge of domestic battery involved a fight that escalated over their finances. Julie had decided to quit her job and try to get pregnant, even though her husband had expressed concerns that he did not make enough money to be the sole provider. He ultimately supported her decision, and Julie quit her job, but after a few months, when money got tight, and they ultimately did not have enough money to pay bills, Julie lost her temper. During her tirade she accused her husband of not caring about their finances and of sabotaging their plans to start a family. Julie became physically abusive toward her husband when he attempted to stand up to her by telling her that he had not in fact wanted her to quit her job because he feared their current situation would come to fruition. Julie became hysterical, accusing her husband of hating her and of just looking for an excuse to leave her.
Dana recognized Julie’s tendency to alter the facts to support whatever theory she was attempting to prove at the moment. She also recognized Julie’s all-or-nothing thinking—people either loved her or hated her, were for her or against her. According to secular psychology Julie may have met the criteria for borderline personality disorder, but Dana recognized her behavior as indicative of a contemporary form of idol worship. Julie was expecting her husband to be God, yet there was only one God who could meet all of Julie’s needs. Dana knew that over the next several months she would be Julie’s representative of God—showing her unconditional love as well as truth. She made a commitment to Julie that she would always be honest with her, and there would be nothing that Julie could do that would lead Dana to end their relationship. She trusted that Julie could handle the truth if it were delivered in love, not shame.
It was only a few days later that Julie seemed to test Dana’s commitment. Julie called Dana and left a frantic message, stating that she was very upset and needed to talk immediately. When Dana had not returned her call within the hour, Julie called again and but this time was enraged. She accused Dana of being like everyone else—making promises but then abandoning her when she was most in need. Before returning Julie’s call, Dana prayed for wisdom and insight. She immediately had an image of truth as light, and for Julie, any truth at all was like a flashlight blaring into her eyes, causing Julie to have to bat the light away to avoid the pain. Dana knew immediately from then on that she would have to be gentle not only in the amount of truth she shared with Julie but also in the way she shared her wisdom.
In the face of Julie’s intense and abrasive defensiveness, Dana resisted the natural tendency to force truth on her. Instead she indulged Julie a little, suspecting that Julie’s initial feeling when she made a mistake was intense shame, but before she could respond to this emotion she reacted by flipping her shame outward into anger against anyone who represented the source of shame—anyone who made her feel guilty in some way, who exacted accountability, and even who reacted emotionally to one of her rages. Dana’s intuition told her that if she could relieve some of Julie’s shame—take her off the hook in some manner–this might give Julie the emotional space to explore her feelings of intense shame and guilt. When Dana did call, she suspected that Julie would already be feeling immense shame and guilt, regretting her episode of anger.
Dana also suspected that Julie would not be able to emotionally manage these feelings, thus would have a need to rationalize her behavior by escalating Dana’s “sin” to match her own reaction. Dana knew that if she admonished Julie for her tantrum, this would set this process in motion, so she did something different; she took Julie off the hook and rather than admonishing her, she praised her for her ability to communicate her feelings! Julie was so taken off guard that it actually enabled her to experience feeling a small amount of productive guilt. After Dana had finished complimenting Julie on her willingness to communicate, Julie admitted that she should have handled her feelings differently, that she should have been more patient, and that in some respects she believed she was expecting to be let down by Dana, thus she didn’t even give her a chance to meet her needs. Success! By taking this counterintuitive approach and lifting the burden of shame, Julie was able to actually recognize her internal process without rationalizing her feelings away.
During the course of their counseling Dana addressed Julie’s negative feelings about God. Julie shared that she felt very insignificant whenever she thought of God. She then shared new elements of her childhood. She had already disclosed a childhood fraught with abuse and emotional humiliation at the hands of both her father and her mother, but during this particular session, Julie shared that whenever she made a mistake as a child, her father would tell her she was going to hell, that she was a disappointment to God, and that she could not hide from God—he could see her wherever she was and he knew what she was doing and that what she was doing the majority of the time was bad. Julie’s father would often physically abuse her, sometimes using a Bible to beat her on the head.
When Dana asked Julie to draw a picture of her relationship with God, Julie drew a picture where she was quite small, crouched down and running, and God, a large presence on the page, was looking down on her with a stern scowl on his face. Dana asked Julie if she ever turned to God when going through a difficult time. Julie looked shocked, expressing her belief that if she were in trouble, God would be the last source she would consider turning toward for support. In fact, Julie shared that she believed that the only time God paid any attention to her was when she had messed up. She imagined God saying, “There you go again—I knew you would blow it eventually!”
Dana told Julie that she would like to spend some time sharing a different type of God with her, not a punishing God, but a loving God who acted as a father to his children—guiding his children when they were walking down the wrong path, like any good father, and applauding when they did well. Dana shared about her own feelings toward her young son. She found herself chuckling even when he got himself into a bit of trouble, like the time he wrote his name in purple crayon all over his closet door, only to deny his culpability when Dana came upon his artwork. Dana was not harsh, nor punishing, but she did want to teach her son that defacing property was not the best choice. She did this in love, extending grace and forgiveness because she understood that at this age her son did not know any better. She also smirked as she admired her son’s artwork, knowing that drawing on the wall with crayon was a perfectly normal thing to do. Julie could not fathom a God who was anything but condemning but she was very interested in learning about the concepts of grace and forgiveness.
Once Dana was confident that Julie trusted her, she began to respond to each of Julie’s rage episodes by first empathizing with Julie’s emotions—her disappointment, her fear, her anger—followed by gently sharing truth. When Julie asked if Dana thought she was wrong to have such high expectations of her husband, Dana said yes, but that did not mean Julie should have no expectations. Rather, Dana explained that once Julie developed a more solid emotional base within herself, including having a more solid relationship with God, her expectations of her husband would likely be more realistic.
Julie’s counseling also consisted of a significant amount of grief counseling, mourning her lost childhood, gaining insight and understanding of the abuse she had endured, and learning her emotional triggers and ways to avoid them. Dana taught Julie to contain her emotions, so that she wouldn’t have to react the moment she experienced an intense emotion, such as the intense fear that she was going to be abandoned, which would often turn toward anger. Dana used guided imagery directing Julie to imagine Jesus holding her firmly, but lovingly. Imagery exercises of this type also helped Julie make God more real in her life. Julie began to believe that God had good intentions for her, not evil ones, that He wanted the best for her, not the worst. He would not hide from her, and she did not have to hide from him. Julie continued counseling even after she met her mandated requirement.
In her second year of counseling Dana shifted focus from Julie’s childhood to her current relationships, including the relationship with her husband. Julie’s intense fear of abandonment often led her to be so self-focused that she was blinded to the damage she caused other people. As her fear of abandonment subsided and her shame diminished, Dana was able to coach Julie into looking through the eyes of her husband. This process would have been impossible a year ago because the shame would have paralyzed her, but with her increasing internal strength, Julie was able to accept her behavior and the pain it caused. Once she saw herself as deserving of forgiveness, she could address her own abusive behavior.
Within the second year of therapy, Julie’s anger receded significantly, and she was able to talk through her feelings rather than act them out. She remained in counseling intermittently for years to maintain her program of faith building, emotional containment, and extending forgiveness to self and others.